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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

This year, for the most hotly contested position-one at the Central Committee of the China Democratic League's reception office-there were about 10,000 competitors.

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In addition to meeting quality standards, imported products must be correctly labeled in Chinese, according to national regulations.
如果一个“推文幼稚的像个幼儿园小朋友”一样最年长的人,都可以当选总统,那为什么反过来不试一下,看看年轻人能否当选并明智地执政?
我对事物持悲观态度

17 November
但1998年的记录现已被每四、五年一次的新记录多次打破,而2014年的记录是在没有显著厄尔尼诺现象发生的年度创下的。加文·A·施密特(Gavin A. Schmidt)是位于曼哈顿的美国宇航局戈达德太空研究所的所长,他说,下一次的强厄尔尼诺现象可能会打破所有的温度记录。
New Year's greetings and best wishes!

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

宁夏2016年将开展绿色建材评价标识管理

Yes. With the US Federal Reserve likely to raise interest rates a few times in 2018, trading is likely to be choppy in emerging markets. Sometimes it may feel a bit like a rerun of the 2013 “taper tantrum”. However, average GDP growth will rise to 5 per cent, up from a forecast 4.7 per cent this year. This will mostly be because Russia and Brazil, which have stumbled, will bounce back.
卓越雇主排名:11
金州勇士队的控球后卫史蒂芬·库里表示,自2013年开始,他每年都会前往中国,而中国的篮球迷也都非常支持他。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

至于德克,我认为没有人应该曲意逢迎,但是总有人会这么做。从某种程度来说,如果球队处境如此令人痛心,或许摆烂会来得更轻松一些。
昨日公布的一项调查显示,就像全国观众在电视机前所看到的一样,买球票来场边观战的,绝大多数是白人和富人。
Coco

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • The 2018 Academic Ranking of World Universities released last Wednesday by Shanghai Ranking Consultancy reveals that 62 research universities in China have made their list of the world's top 500 universities.
  • 28家公司暂缓IPO 欧普照明上市或再遇阻
  • Age: 43
  • 2017年1月我国陶瓷出口额比去年同期增长10.4%
  • 统计局:7月CPI同比上涨2.1% 居住类价格同比上涨2.4%
  • 安娜还补充道,在巴西筹办世界杯期间,巴西人民却在遭罪。由于大型建设项目造成交通拥挤,耽误了居住在城市郊区穷人的上下班时间,她认为只有富人才会在世界杯倍感享受。
    坚持一个中国的政策,这是中美关系的政治基础,不是风云变幻能够动摇的,也动摇不得。有了这样一个政治基础,中美合作的前景是广阔的。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 必须了解的智能家居五大行业发展趋势, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

湛江家具2015年出口突破50亿元

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

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Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • Sari Davidson
    Amid all of the current talk about whether government law enforcement agencies should be able to legally force Apple to unlock an iPhone to look for evidence, there is a machine available now at London's Fone Fun Shop that will find the four-digit passcode used to lock down an iPhone. And this device costs only $170.
  • 这个家庭中心内部有三个摄像头,它能够连接到你的手机,你可以通过手机看冰箱里有什么。所以它基本上是一个6000美元替代用纸笔完成购物清单的替代品。
    尽管随着2014年末几项官司尘埃落定,手机专利战争似乎已经降温,但新年伊始,苹果与爱立信就又在无线通讯的专利费率上爆发冲突。黑莓过去就是一家热爱诉讼的公司:他们甚至因为名人瑞安o西克雷斯特设计的手机键盘而起诉他。但近些日子以来,公司更多地把工作重心放在了让智能手机消费者相信他们的技术依旧很棒,或至少很有意义上。
    周二在上海举办的中国国际机器人产业发展高峰论坛称,2017年,工业机器人的销量和增速均创新高。在这些工业机器人当中,有37825台为国产制造,同比增长29.8%。
    获奖者:哈里王子殿下
    而其他的队伍还有在尝试赢球的。小牛队,在3-13的战绩面前,骄傲地说他们不会垫底。但是,明年被认为是近年来最好的NBA选秀,有Markelle Fultz, Jayson Tatum, Lonzo Ball, Josh Jackson, Harry Gile, OG Anumoby, Ivan Rabb……等等优质球员。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 出租房乱象丛生 北京山东等地正拟定相关政策
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 去年北京公积金个贷大增55.2%

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

对于购房者,也不都是坏消息:房价明年(2015年——译注)仍将上涨,但步伐可能会从飙涨趋于平缓。“房价不会一味地陡然上涨,”柯克兰集团(Corcoran)的首席执行官帕梅拉·利伯曼(Pamela Liebman)说,“买家都有点疲劳了。”
It was there in Rossella Jardini’s Moschino, from the bows and bouffants of spring-summer 2009 to the Mary Quant-inspired spring 2013 collection.
这些专家都不是轻量级的。杰出的历史学家玛格丽特?麦克米伦(Margaret MacMillan)在2013年12月的一篇为布鲁金斯学会(Brookings)撰写的文章中说:“像1914年的世界一样,我们正在经历国际权力结构的转换,新兴大国正在挑战老牌大国。”她补充说,“如今,同样的一幕正发生在美国与中国,以及中国与日本之间”,同时她还表示,“中国与它另外两个邻国——越南和马来西亚——也有爆发冲突的可能性。”
Hope you enjoy the happiness of New Year and all the trimmings.
该报告调研了156个国家,结果显示,丹麦、挪威、瑞士、荷兰和瑞典是幸福指数最高的前5个国家。而撒哈拉以南非洲的大部分国家——卢旺达,布隆迪,中非共和国,贝宁和多哥等则被该报告评为幸福指数最低的几个国家。中国列第93位。
Dafoe is probably the current front runner for best supporting actor.
而是穆斯克在会上表示,预计特斯拉到2015年底将实现10万台的年产量。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 在定制课程排行榜上,排在第二名瑞士洛桑国际管理发展学院之后的是杜克企业教育学院(Duke Corporate Education)。这是这所美国学校连续第3年位列第三。该校在2014年连续第12年占据定制课程排行榜榜首位置,创下纪录。
  • 各地物业纠纷呈上升恶化趋势 专家:关系待重构
  • A robust LinkedIn presence is crucial to any job search. You know that. Your manager knows that. And your manager probably knows that you know that – so she'll be concerned when you go from having a bare-bones profile on Monday to one jacked with additional work history, new connections, status updates and recommendations by Friday. "Don't go from zero to 500 overnight, because that can be quite obvious," Foss cautions。
    At New Year and always, may peace and love fill your heart, beauty fill your world, and contentment and joy fill your days.
  • 家具电商为何屡中“电伤”
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 2. The Hammocraft
    23% of wealthy Chinese women work in real estate and 18% of them are involved in finance and investment, followed by manufacturing accounting for 14%.
  • 尽管谷歌已经竭尽所能,那一刻却依然还未到来。许多报告都声称,可穿戴设备将在2014年成为主流。不过来自数字研究公司L2的最新报告证实了许多人正在默默为之努力的一件事:可穿戴设备仍然没有得到社会的广泛接受,要扩大销量依旧障碍重重。
    在动画电影行业执迷于翻拍让观众有共鸣的老故事时,皮克斯却总能尝试新事物,把观众带到从未踏足的新领域。《寻梦环游记》由《玩具总动员3》导演李?昂克里奇执导,该片的视觉效果基于墨西哥的亡灵节。故事讲述了一个名叫米格尔的小男孩崇拜传奇吉他手欧内斯托?德?拉?克鲁兹,想学习如何能弹奏得和他一样好。于是他就像奥德赛一样踏上了改造性的自我发现之旅,进入死亡之地寻找那位已去世多年的偶像,还受到了一些关于创造力本质的教导。《寻梦环游记》是否能达到皮克斯2015年杰作《头脑特工队》的高度尚未可知,但这部电影绝对是一场视觉盛宴。该片将于11月15日在法国上映,11月22日在美国、克罗地亚和菲律宾上映,11月30日在以色列上映。(资料来源:迪士尼/皮克斯)
  • 9. Add Personality
    1.保险精算师
  • Zuckerberg, 31, had the best year of all billionaires, having added 11.2billion dollars to his fortune and moving up from number 16 to six on the list. This is Zuckerberg's and Amazon's Jeff Bezos' first appearance in the top ten of Forbes' annual ranking.
    4.嘘声不仅仅是个手势
    销售与市场类
  • ESCP欧洲商学院(ESCP Europe)和美国麻省理工学院斯隆管理学院(MIT Sloan School of Management)也表现不错。两所学院的排名均上升5位,分别位居第三和第五。
    测试采用闭卷形式,长达两个半小时。理论上说,妮诗的测试成绩以及由此推算出的162分智商比大名鼎鼎的物理学家爱因斯坦还要高2分。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 国家发展改革委外资司召开中法第三方市场合作项目推进会 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

为阻千万豪宅拍卖 老赖竟把房子设成灵堂

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

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Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

女白领不购物不吃肉月消费数百 攒300万买房

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

四部委印发意见规范公租房:分类合理确定准入门槛

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 挪威诺贝尔和平奖委员会表示,希望这次的颁奖有助于制止在很多国家内仍然存在的对女性的压迫。
  • 艾丽斯·斯瓦策尔多年来一直为争取女性权利而斗争。她对像唐纳德·特朗普这样“老式的性别歧视者”能够当上美国总统深感震惊。
  • 新三板LED方阵再添新军 3公司股票挂牌获批

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 但舒尔茨没有停留在担心这一步。美国政府停摆期间,星巴克还在一些日子里为给他人买咖啡的顾客免单。舒尔茨希望此举能帮助人们“在期待民选官员为了国家利益团结起来的同时,彼此也能团结起来。”
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 报名窗口将于周六关闭,报名成功者须参加11月29号的2016年国家公务员考试,考试通过后才可以参加明年3月的面试。
    Henda Ayari
    总体来看,36%的人相信末日论,而63%的人相信是气候变化的结果。
  • Here are our top picks for games that debuted at Gamescom 2014.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 2014年1月,我在达沃斯亲身感受到了这种悲观情绪。几位著名西方学者问我中国和日本之间是否会爆发战争。我非常有信心东亚不会发生战争,以至于我提出以1赔10的赔率与西方知名记者们打赌。两位记者接受了我的赌约。今年1月回到达沃斯时,我将收取他们的赌注。
  • 一线城市楼市弱平衡:京沪楼盘降价广深探底
  • 消费者的感觉变好。由于就业市场、楼市和股市状况的改善,消费者信心达到四年来的最高水平。美国陷入衰退后,美国人缩减债务,避免借钱并推迟购买。这意味着消费者需求增强的条件可能已经具备,进而可能促使停止招聘的企业开始扩员。信安环球投资有限公司的鲍尔说,企业可能尽可能地提高生产力增长,他表示雇主将需要增员来满足更强劲的需求。qh]

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 产品与服务两手抓 陶瓷互联网经济才能落地
  • Household substance abuse
  • 流水线上的地产从业者: 天天担心被“干掉”
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

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  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 一些商品房公摊面积让购房者很受伤
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 进口家具生意难做 真伪难辨市场混乱
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

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Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

单词determine 联想记忆:
有A型人格特征的人往往是高成就的“工作狂”。他们用最后期限激励自己,讨厌延迟和矛盾心理。A型人格的人工作压力更大,工作满意度更低。
由西班牙IQS商学院、台湾辅仁大学(Fu Jen Catholic University)和旧金山大学(University of San Francisco)三家合办的管理学硕士项目排名升幅最大。其全球创业管理硕士项目的排名上升34位,至第43位,逆转了去年下滑19名的势头。这是唯一一个在三大洲授课的项目,其在国际课程体验方面排名第一。
The film critics of The New York Times — Manohla Dargis and A. O. Scott — share their picks for the best movies of the year.
根据报道,当地法院鉴于周某的年龄及其坦白承认自己的罪行,最终给予了周某一个宽大的判决。
当科比的身体长到了6尺6寸时,高中时期的他已经是一个相当中型身板的家伙。可以想象,在1996年,想抵挡住17岁的科比进攻就很难。我相信,这几乎是不可能的。
Annual prices had been rising as much as 9.6 per cent at the start of this year but they've cooled since then as the economy slows and many mid-sized Chinese cities suffer from a glut of apartments.
埃玛·莫拉诺(Emma Morano)
CONTACT: Staci Donegan and Peter Westley, Celia Dunn Sotheby’s International Realty, (912) 247-2052 / (912) 660-5169; celiadunnsir.com
n. 文件,公文,文档

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

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Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 普斯·格洛(Pussy Galore)在本书中回归,这也是首次有邦女郎在邦德身边昙花一现后,拥有了自己的故事线。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • People in fourth-tier and smaller cities have economic pressures close to the national average level in terms of income, education, medical services and elderly care, while family and human relationship stress are higher than second- and third-tier cities.
  • 全国最大绿色建材基地落户常州 总投资36亿元
  • Latest data from the US Treasury Department shows that India held securitie sworth $80 billion in September and further reduced its exposure to $77.5billion in October -- which is also a three-month low.
  • 二胎政策落实:木门企业该抓住哪些发展重点?
  • Build the armed forces through political work and reform, and run them by law

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 北京市委书记蔡奇在通州区调研:高质量推动城市副中心规划建设
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • However, 2016 saw the rise of Chinese mobile phone-makers. Huawei shipments grew 30.2 percent year on year to 139.3 million units, and the company retained its No. 3 position globally.
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This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

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